- Chiang, E., W. M. Pitts, Jr., et al. (1985).
Respiratory dyskinesia: review and case reports.
J Clin Psychiatry 46(6): 232-4.
Respiratory dyskinesia, the respiratory manifestations of tardive dyskinesia, has been recognized recently by several investigators. The literature is reviewed, two new cases are described, and possible directions for future research are discussed. It was concluded that respiratory dyskinesia is infrequently recognized clinically; more importantly, it may be easily mistaken for other medical disorders.
- Greenberg, D. B. and G. B. Murray (1981).
Hyperventilation as a variant of tardive dyskinesia.
J Clin Psychiatry 42(10): 401-3.
Respiratory dyskinesia, a variant of tardive dyskinesia, may mimic chronic psychogenic hyperventilation syndrome, hence pseudopsychogenic hyperventilation. Respiratory alkalosis and sympathetic discharge may occur in both conditions. Neurological symptoms, dyspnea, chest pain, muscle spasms may also occur. Ventilation increases with stress and disappears with sleep in both conditions. However, respiratory dyskinesia has been seen in association with other choreiform movement disorders. Speech is interrupted by breathing and breathing is interrupted by grunts and groans. Respiratory dyskinesia is under partial voluntary control and is not due to a "psychological problems."
- Stacy, M. (1999).
Managing late complications of
Med Clin North Am 83(2): 469-81, vii.
Treatment of parkinsonism becomes more difficult as the disease progresses, and results from increasing neuronal degeneration, side effects from antiparkinsonian medications, or most often, a combination of each. Neurodegenerative parkinson symptoms may result from substantia nigra destruction, or from other areas in the nervous system. These include the cortex (cognitive and psychiatric disorders), brainstem (bulbar abnormalities), intermediolateral cell column (autonomic disturbances), among others. Medication side effects produce motor fluctuations, dyskinesias, delirium, hallucinations, psychosis, orthostatic hypotension, sleep disorders, and a host of other well- recognized complications. This article is divided into sections concerning motor fluctuations, gait difficulty bulbar disturbances, autonomic disturbances, sleep disorders, cognitive disorders, and psychiatric disorders, and is an attempt to provide the reader with strategies for treating common complications in the advanced Parkinson's disease patient